Chronic Disease

Nearly one in two adults suffers from at least one chronic illness, such as diabetes or arthritis, and seven out of 10 deaths in the United States each year are caused by chronic disease. Foundation for NIH programs target these diseases at every stage: prevention, detection, therapies, intervention and cure.

The I-SPY 2 trial employs a groundbreaking clinical trial model that uses genetic or biological markers (“biomarkers”) from individual patients’ tumors to screen promising new treatments, identifying which treatments are most effective in specific types of patients. In addition, an innovative adaptive trial design will enable researchers to use early data from one set of patients to guide decisions about which treatments might be more useful for patients later in the trial, and eliminate ineffective treatments more quickly. The large-scale trial involves a unique collaboration by scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), FDA, and nearly 20 major cancer research centers across the country. Study results will be made broadly available to the entire cancer research and development community. 

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) created the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network to collect and carefully analyze cases of liver injury caused by prescription and non-prescription drugs, nutritional supplements and herbal remedies.

The atherosclerosis project is a two-stage project. The first stage, currently in execution, will utilize published data for refining an existing in silico model of atherosclerosis. The model platform will be provided by a leading company in the field, Entelos, which was selected through a thorough FNIH-managed review process.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic disease that makes it difficult for sufferers to breathe, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and other symptoms. Affecting as many as 24 million people in the United States, the disease gradually worsens over time and is currently without a cure. Existing treatments can provide only moderate relief of symptoms. Spiromics aims to accelerate the development of new therapies for COPD through the collection and analysis of phenotypic, genetic, proteomic and clinical data from 3,000 individuals with COPD to better identify subpopulations and intermediate outcome measures to help guide more personalized monitoring and therapeutic interventions.

This important new research study sponsored by a public-private partnership is designed to identify and classify imaging and biochemical biomarkers of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Research for this study will be conducted by an international team of leading OA scientists and clinicians. The potential impact of this project is significant; the OA biomarkers identified may be used to categorize individuals at risk of developing severe OA, to develop new measures for clinical progression of the disease, and to develop new treatment options for the prevention of OA progression.

The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis affects over 15 million people in the United States. Working in collaboration, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the and the private sector are striving to improve the efficiency of drug development and clinical trials for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), is a landmark partnership and study supported by the FNIH tasked with identifying biomarkers derived from brain scans, genetic profiles and blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to detect progression of AD. ADNI II builds upon the successes of earlier ADNI phases and seeks to identify the earliest changes in brain structure and function as people transition from normal cognitive aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. This next phase of the study is scheduled to continue through 2015.

Osteoarthritis—the most common form of arthritis—is a degenerative joint disease, and the major cause of physical limitations and disability in older people. Today, 35 million people (13 percent of the U.S. population) are 65 and older, and more than half of them have clear evidence of osteoarthritis in at least one joint. By 2030, 20 percent of Americans (about 70 million people) will have passed their 65th birthday and will be at risk for osteoarthritis.

This kidney safety project will impact public health by generating the data needed to advance, among the scientific community, clinicians and regulators the acceptance of the new biomarkers that are appropriate for monitoring kidney safety in the clinic and from reaching alignment on how these biomarkers should be used to improve clinical diagnoses of drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) during drug development and during patient therapy with presently marketed and well known nephrotoxic drugs.

First described more than 100 years ago, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has no cure or lasting, effective treatment. Currently, more than 5 million people in the United States suffer from it and its incidence is projected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years.

This project, made possible by $650,000 in private-sector contributions to the Foundation for NIH, was overseen by the National Cancer Institute.

To best benefit the hundreds of thousands of patients who rely upon life-sustaining kidney dialysis, this program supports the implementation of randomized clinical trials of daily in-center and home hemodialysis.

The goal of this multi-year project was to evaluate schizophrenia medications as they relate to indicators for cardiovascular disease and disease stability, and to determine treatment effectiveness.